Epigraphy as an ancilla to the study of the Greek Bible.
A propos of a recent anthology of inscriptions 1
It is a curious feature of the history of research on the Greek Bible
that it took so long for the significance of Greek inscriptions to be perceived and,
furthermore, that this realisation began only a century ago, in the last decade of the
nineteenth century. Greek and Latin literature had been quarried since J.J. Wettstein
2 to illustrate
or contrast with both the linguistic usage and the sentiments of the first
Christian writers. In fact, but for the discovery of large numbers of papyri a century ago
in Egypt, inscriptions may well still be standing silently in the shadowlands of Biblical
studies, largely unnoticed, their potential untapped for the contextualization of
intertestamental Judaism and of Christianity in the first century of its existence. As
they began to be published, the papyri captured popular imagination no less than the
interest of scholarly circles. For Biblical Studies their importance was immediately
obvious, in several ways: to mention just three, copies of biblical texts had been found
which predated in some cases the great Uncials of the fourth century; the discovery of
many private letters offered interesting affinities in genre with the NT letters; and
linguistic features of these non-literary texts provided similarities with elements in the
NT writings. When Deissmann drew attention to the importance of the papyri, however, he
also saw the equal significance of the epigraphic texts for Biblical studies 3. His work exercised a
considerable influence until a reaction against his approach became evident in the 1930s 4. Had he completed the
lexicon of the NT on which he had been working until he was diverted into other tasks by
the outbreak of the First World War, perhaps his views would have retained a much longer
currency. For it is apparent from his correspondence with J.H. Moulton that he was intending to draw heavily upon epigraphical evidence to illustrate NT usage 5. Thanks largely to Deissmann, the inscriptions "piggybacked" to prominence in NT circles on the surge of interest in the
papyri. Yet among NT scholars the papyri certainly dominated the other branch of
documentary texts, despite the considerably longer period for which the inscriptions had
been subjected to research scrutiny. Apart from Deissmann himself and a couple of his
students, the inscriptions largely went out of focus in the NT field 6. In the preface to the
first fascicule of their Vocabulary of the Greek Testament a preface even
less read than most because it was not included in the complete, one-volume work
J.H. Moulton and G. Milligan (MM) were explicit about the difficulty of collecting
epigraphic evidence 7.
Although they built upon Deissmann"s work, and culled the non-literary papyri with
gusto, they conceded that the use which they had made of the epigraphic evidence was much
more limited: indeed, they confined themselves mainly to a few anthologies, such as
Dittenberger"s OGIS (Orientis greci inscriptiones selectae) and SIG
(Sylloge inscriptionum graecarum), together with IG (Inscriptiones graece)
and a few important corpora from certain cities. Then they began on SEG (Supplementum
epigraphicum graecum; vol. 1 in two fascicules, 1923-24) which pulls together the
annual harvest of inscriptions presented in journals. The papyrologists, internationally
co-operative and better organised from the outset 8, already had the first volume of SB (Sammelbuch
griechischer Urkunden aus Aegypten, ed. F. Preisigke) in three parts in train before
the First War (1913-15). The first two Lieferungen of WB (Wörterbuch der
griechischen Papyrusurkunden, ed. F. Preisigke) appeared in 1924, for which there has
never been a true equivalent in epigraphy. The preponderance in MM of papyrus evidence
over epigraphic in proportion to the relative amounts of each which had been published is
reflected in that book"s subtitle, where the papyri but not the inscriptions are
explicitly mentioned: Illustrated from the papyri and other non-literary sources
and by the latter they meant the inclusion of writers such as Vettius Valens and
Epiktetos, not inscriptions alone. Whereas a number of collections was made quite early of
papyrus texts which might interest students of the Bible 9, it was a very long wait until something similar
was done with the inscriptions. To the best of my knowledge the trailblazer was Emilio Gabba from Milan. His contribution
10 was important not
only because it was the first of its kind (if we except Deissmann"s Licht vom
Osten as sui generis): it is also to be noted that Gabba was an epigrapher and
ancient historian. He approached the texts from this background, rather than as a NT
specialist. Gabba knew his business well, and presented succinctly his well-chosen
selection of 35 texts, leaving it to users to tease out more fully points of interest for
the intertestamental Jewish writings in the Apocrypha and the NT documents. The book was
well received by epigraphers no less than by Biblical researchers.
useful volume has been long out of print; the lack has now been met more than a generation
later by an anthology of 45 inscriptions which relate to some or other aspect of the
Bible. Laura Boffo"s book is clearly intended to supersede that of her teacher: the
very title is identical. Gabba"s presence in the new book remains strong. Not only
has he provided a preface which describes her book as a new work, but his 1958
introduction is reprinted verbatim, with only a few updating additions by Boffo to the
notes. This is rather disconcerting, and occasions some confusing impressions for the
reader which could easily have been avoided by some judicious editing of the older
introduction. The author herself is more modest in calling her contribution a
re-elaboration and a revision of her former teacher"s volume. And she is right in
this perspective; for, although greatly expanded in length (in part due to the addition of
several inscriptions, but mainly because the scale of conception for each entry is quite
different from Gabba"s spare commentaries), Boffo"s book is really a second
edition of Gabba"s compendium.
layout of each entry is as follows: bibliography, text, commentary, translation (unless
the text is too fragmentary). Some of the other details could usefully have been placed in
a consistent position within this arrangement. Several entries require careful searching
to discover the date of the text. Unless I missed it, the most awkward instance of this is
no. 15 whose date (II BC; Gabba no. 10 proposes early I BC) awaits discovery on page 330
under no. 39. It is also hard to find the editio princeps for each inscription.
Sometimes this information is listed separately from the bibliography, together with other
editions; at other times it is buried away in the bibliography itself; and a few times it
is mentioned in a footnote or in the commentary. Details of dimensions of the stone could
also have been presented in a consistent place within each entry.
Eleven inscriptions published since Gabba"s book appeared have
been added to the new version, and one item (no. 35) from the 1958 book has been dropped.
Even that one (two ossuary inscriptions from Jerusalem which include the name
"Jesus") need not have been excised if a different orientation from Gabba"s
were given to the commentary; but perhaps the confrontingly defiant title of an article by
J.P. Kane 11
deterred Boffo (see her Foreword, 10). The point arises for consideration, what makes an inscription appropriate for the study of the Bible? Different answers
may be advanced, partly on the basis of the kind of reader who is envisaged by the author.
Gabba treats this usefully in his introduction (Boffo, 18). While some inscriptions are of
clear and direct relevance (e.g., no. 23, the Quirinius inscription from Syria which
raises the problem of the date of the census mentioned in the Lukan birth narrative at 2,
1-3), others refer to people who are mentioned in the Bible (e.g., Antiochos IV Epiphanes,
no. 11; Herod the Great, no. 17; Pontius Pilate, no. 25; Gallio the proconsul, no. 29), to
civic magistracies (politarchs, no. 27), or to Jewish institutions (synagogues and proseuchai,
nos. 1, 10, 12). Those sections of the Bible on which Greek and Latin inscriptions may
bear are parts of the Apocrypha for the intertestamental period, and the New Testament for
incipient Christianity and contemporary expressions of Judaism.
choice of 45 Greek and Latin inscriptions may be analysed from several vantage points. In
date they range from the third quarter of III BC to AD II or III, with just under half
before the turn of the era. Geographically, Syria-Palestine is strongly represented,
followed closely by Greece and the Mediterranean islands. Six inscriptions come from
Egypt; but it is surprising, perhaps, that only four were selected from Italy and Asia
Minor, respectively as for genres, more than a quarter are dedications, followed by a good
number of inscriptions on buildings, pavements, etc., as well as honorific texts and
epitaphs. A sprinkling of other types of inscriptions is represented in ones and twos:
royal/imperial letters, milestone, graffito, proxeny list (no. 7, the only inscription
from which an extract is included), prayer (or curse) text. There is a fairly even
representation of Jewish and pagan inscriptions, with no Christian ones. Eleven texts are
in Latin, the remainder in Greek; but there are two bilinguals (Greek/Latin,
Several of the items carried across from Gabba"s book are
"old chestnuts", texts which patently are of interest for those concerned with
the historical and linguistic context of the biblical narratives, yet which also raise
their own serious problems of interpretation. Examples of these are the Quirinius
inscription (Boffo no. 23; the longest entry in the volume), the fragmentary inscription
from Kypros mentioning a Q. Serg[ius (no. 28), which has been taken rather too
readily (if understandably) to refer to Sergius Paullus the governor of the island whom
Barnabas and Saul encountered (Acts 13, 4-12), the Gallio inscription from Delphi (no.
29), the "keep out" notice from the Temple at Jerusalem (no. 32), the Erastus
inscription from Korinth (no. 43), and the theatre inscription from Miletos mentioning
Jews and Godfearers (no. 44). The Gallio inscription offers a good instance of the value
of Boffo"s book. Gabba no. 22 treated it succinctly and well for what was known in
the 1950s; but Boffo no. 29 is able to provide a rather improved (though still heavily
restored) text thanks to the discovery and publication in 1967 by A. Plassart of several
more fragments 12. Some
of the entries are rather less satisfying, however: the end of a decree about religious
matters which mentions Q. Sergius (no. 28), for example, has a number of readings
which may be open to some doubt when compared with the photo in Gabba (pl. 4). A critical
one for the date of the text occurs in l. 9, where Boffo prints G]aiou following T.B.
Mitford against Gabba"s Klaud]iou following ed. pr. and L. Robert.
The eleven new texts (seven
Greek, four Latin) were first published between the years 1958 (no. 36) and 1987 (no. 5).
It may be useful here to list them, with brief evaluation where appropriate.
Nos. 2 (c. 250-175
BC) and 3 (150-50 BC), both Greek, first published in 1982, are treated together
and concern the Samaritan community on Delos: an excellent choice to include these. No. 3
is the only inscription of the entire anthology to be illustrated with a photo (on the
No. 4 (before 215/4 BC) is a
dedication by a priest honouring Ptolemy IV Philopator, published in 1962. It was reused
and found at Joppa in a third-century catacomb. Boffo denies that a temple is implied by
the stele; but could you have a priest without some kind of cult centre? The commentary is
interesting, but might have explored briefly the question of Hellenistic divine kingship
as a precursor to the Imperial cult. How is the text really relevant to the study of the
Bible? The text is not Jewish, and we are left to infer that it was included primarily
because of the Joppa provenance, and the associations that location had for Judaism and
No. 5 is a dossier of three
Greek letters including a Royal Letter from Antiochos III to Zeuxis, inscribed in Mysia in
209 BC and published in 1987. While they are of high interest in themselves, the link with
the study of the Bible which is, after all, the rationale for inclusion in the
present volume is very slight: the dossier provides the opportunity to consider
anew the authenticity of the letter preserved in Josephos (Ant. 12, 148-53) from
Antiochos to Zeuxis concerning the forced transfer of 2000 Jewish families to Phrygia and
Lydia from Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
No. 14 (published in 1961)
is a dedication dated 135-129 BC and found at Akko which was offered by a local officialto
Zeus Soter on behalf of Antiochos VII and Kleopatra Thea. The date means that
Antiochos" epithet kallinikos may allude to his victory over John Hyrkanos.
The wording of this dedication is exactly paralleled by no. 10, in which Jews in Egypt
make a dedication to Theos Hypsistos on behalf of Ptolemy VI Philometor and his wife
Kleopatra. The useful discussion of the parallel in the Antiochos text to the use of euergetes
in Lk. 22, 25 might have been a model for many more such comments on the language of these
inscriptions relative to the study of the Bible. On the whole, Boffo has chosen to make
the strength of her book lie elsewhere, in her generally clear, up-to-date and evenhanded
presentation of the historical problems raised by the inscriptions.
No. 25, the well-known
Pontius Pilate building inscription in Latin from Caesarea, was first published in 1961
and is probably to be dated AD 31: a sine qua non for inclusion, undoubtedly. The
commentary, dealing satisfactorily with the several obvious points, seems to me,
nevertheless, to be lacking somewhat in its consideration of the layout of the text, and
the consequences of this for its interpretation. There was a maximum of four lines, subsequently erased on the left and in the last line. Praef]ectus
in l. 3 implies that not too much has been lost after Pilate"s name in the
previous line; but more than the very few letters proposed by Boffo"s edition are
likely to be missing. Even though the letters are up to 7 cm. high, the text is too short
to serve as a building inscription. Is it possible to establish that the text was confined
to one block?
No. 26, also in Latin, was
first published in 1979, and is a funerary monument from Rome for an imperial slave of
Tiberius named Idumaeus, who (given his name) may have come to the city from Idumaea as a
gift from Herod the Great or his sister Salome to Livia, the emperor"s mother.
No. 30, much debated since
it was first published in 1966, is a fragmentary Greek inscription dated not long after AD
70 and found near Haifa. It commemorates T. Mucius Clemens, who served as Agrippa
II"s army commander in the war against the Jews in AD 70. The cursus for this
Roman citizen who may have been a Jew is curious. If Clemens were Jewish, and acting in a
high profile capacity de facto on behalf of the Romans, then the analogy with
Josephos deserves to be explored further. In an appendix (265-273) to that text Boffo
prints and discusses the now lost IGLS 7.4011, likewise an incomplete text of
post-70 date from Syria, which shows parallels to Clemens" career; the partly
preserved name has been claimed to be that of Pliny the Elder.
No. 33 attests the provision
of a mosaic for Herod"s temple in Jerusalem, the gift of a man from Rhodes. The
fragmentary Greek text is possibly to be dated 18/7 BC (in any case, it must be prior to
AD 70) on the basis of a highpriestly year (name lost). This slight piece, which is
nevertheless of some interest, was first published in 1983.
No. 36 first appeared in the
year Gabba"s book was published and is a Latin inscription dated to the early 80s AD
from Urbs Salvia near Picenum in Italy, giving the cursus of L. Flavius Silva
Nonius Bassus in the context of his donation (in concert with his family) of an
amphitheatre and provision of spectacula at the opening. He was consul in AD 81,
and governor of Judaea prior to that. Much debate has been occasioned by this text
concerning the date of the siege at Masada, the length of the Jewish resistance, and
whether there was indeed a mass suicide spilling over to contemporary ideological
questions (Boffo, 310). This is a particularly good choice to include, and Boffo"s
commentary is very useful.
No. 38 (published in 1974)
is a Latin dedication by Legio X Fretensis to mark its erection of a building at Jerusalem
to honour Vespasian and Titus in AD 78/9. The erased name of the commanding officer (who
at this period also acted as governor of Judaea) was probably L. Antonius Saturninus
(inscribed in some abbreviated manner R. Syme"s proposal to include a
shortened form of the cognomen may be preferable to the restoration included by
Boffo), whose brief revolt in 89 while legate in Germania Superior accounts for the damnatio
The selection of texts for
an anthology will be made slightly differently by each person. It should not be inferred
that the 35 texts chosen by Gabba were the only ones which merited inclusion at that time.
No older published inscriptions have been re-evaluated for possible inclusion in
Boffo"s book, apparently. This may be felt to be a lost opportunity. By adopting all
but one of Gabba"s original choices, has the new editor felt herself
somewhat confined? Not only are all the inscriptions except his last retained in the same
date order, with the new items added in at the appropriate point chronologically, but in
most cases Gabba"s views, and even quite a bit of almost verbatim wording are taken
over. Yet there is some independence visible. A few inscriptions are edited rather
differently in the light of scholarly debate over the intervening three decades. No. 16,
for example, a fragmentary honorific inscription for a strategos in Egypt who may
have been Jewish, is handled more cautiously by Boffo. She declines to offer a translation
since there is no continuous text in which we can be confident. In contrast, Gabba no. 11
provided a translation of this inscription on the basis of the full supplements proposed
by T. Reinach in his editio princeps at the turn of the century. It is the
restorations which make this strategos decisively Jewish: whether it can be shown
to be Jewish otherwise is open to some question. And once this doubt arises for the
reader, the question inevitably arises: what justifies its inclusion in a volume of
inscriptions relative to the study of the Bible? May there not be some less problematic
texts qua texts to consider for inclusion?
A further instance where
Boffo demonstrates her independence of her predecessor is no. 11 (= Gabba, no. 7), now
lost. For this fragmentary dedication to Antiochos IV Epiphanes Boffo provides a
considerable number of different restorations and a different line length, along with a
detailed apparatus. In ll. 3 and 8 the way the year is read, having a kai
interposed between the second and third numeral, seems odd. In the first of these lines
the first numeral should be printed as " to indicate stigma (= 6), not s sigma (=
200). The reason the inscription has been included is because of the mention of the
notorious profaner of the Temple. Yet this particular inscription throws no light on that
event at all, so is selected merely because of the attestation of the monarch"s name.
This basis for selection seems rather slight if nothing more can be made of the particular
text vis-à-vis the study of the Bible; and this inscription is not the sole one in
the anthology of which this observation is true.
The doubt alluded to above
about the basis for selection may nag at the reader for other inscriptions where there is
no problem of a fragmentary text. The sole verse inscription to be included by Boffo, no.
19, is a funerary epigram for a woman from Leontopolis in Egypt. It is interesting in its
own right for a number of reasons; but why has it been included? The answer lies in the
fact that Gabba apparently chose to put it into his volume (no. 14) primarily on the basis
of J.-B. Frey"s article on the word prwto/tokoj in this inscription 13, and Boffo follows him. There are several other words in this
inscription alone which also might have merited comment in relation to their use in the
In contrast, no. 31 is a
quite exemplary treatment of a series of terms in a Jerusalem inscription in which a man
records his contribution towards the building program of a synagogue, and indicates his
family"s long association with it in leadership roles and philanthropic support. This
text is well known (= CIJ 2.1404), but Boffo has covered all the
features of the text titles, family, consequences for the Hellenization of
Palestine in an excellent manner.
The observation was made
earlier that there are other inscriptions long known which might have merited inclusion in
a new anthology possessing the focus that this one has. Examples may be noted briefly, and
somewhat randomly, of texts which illustrate rather different points of connection with
the Bible. Since politarchs are included, one might also reasonably expect attention to be
given to certain other officials such as the asiarchs, most of the evidence for whom is
epigraphic. There has been debate about them over the last fifteen years which could
usefully have been evaluated in a book of this kind 14. The important Jewish inscription from Aphrodisias listing
Godfearers as a recognised category in the Jewish community seems an obvious item to
indeed, the problematic Miletos theatre inscription (no. 44) might have been subsumed into
an entry whose focus and starting point was the Aphrodisias text. One or more of the Isis
aretalogies would provide useful material, whether for an exploration of the "I
am" statements in the Fourth Gospel (I.Kyme 41), or for consideration of
intense personal devotion to a deity 16. The inclusion of an oracle recorded on stone, such as SEG
27.933 from Oinoanda, would be easy to justify. So, too, would be a selection of the moral
maxims set up at Aï Khanoum in Afghanistan 17; other epigraphic copies are known from elsewhere. An inscription
such as SIG3 985, emphasising as it does the strict moral requirements for
membership of a voluntary association in Lydia in II or early I BC, has much to offer for
an anthology of this kind. The same is true of confession texts 18, and sacred laws 19. IG XII 9.1179 has been suggested to show us a member of the Second Sophistic who is
sympathetic towards and knowledgeable about Judaism 20. The problematic (because fragmentary) dedication to the
"unknown gods" found at Pergamon might be a candidate for inclusion 21; and the Hellenistic bilingual dedication to "God in
Dan" which has come to light fairly recently is worth more than a passing thought 22. Although they may come from a later period, the
quotation of biblical passages in inscriptions and the inscribing of biblical tags,
whether texts carved on lintels of churches and homes or on gravestones, may be felt to be
relevant to such an anthology 23. The
list could be extended, but the point is clear: in an anthology with the focus that
Boffo"s possesses there is scope for a much wider variety of inscriptions to be
It is easy, of course, for a
reviewer to make suggestions about desirable additions, but books must have a finite
length. There are several inscriptions in the present collection some of which have been
noted above as less obvious choices. Were some of these to have been excluded, a more
diverse anthology could have resulted. And there is a high premium on diversity in books
of this kind, for it is realistic to suppose that many of those readers for whom the book
is primarily intended will study no other inscriptions than these. Apart from those texts
noted above with a somewhat unclear rationale for inclusion, no. 1 seems otiose given the
inclusion of no. 10. As for no. 27, the politarchs are well worth retaining, but there are
rather more fruitful texts featuring them which might have been selected 24. J.M.S. Cowey has informed me (and generously authorised
me to mention here) that he is currently preparing for publication two papyri in the
Heidelberg collection which identify the same man as "politarch". Both are
petitions of fifth-century date addressed to Alexander the politarch "who is at the
top of the administrative organisation of the Jewish politeuma at
Diversity of selection as a
desideratum makes it pertinent to mention here epigraphy"s role as an ancilla
to the study of the Greek Bible. While epigraphy is a significant sub-discipline within the field of Classics,
there is much for those in Biblical Studies to learn from the texts published by those
specialists. But where they are presented in a forbidding manner that has the appearance
of epigraphers talking only inter se, these important evidences from antiquity will
rarely reach those wider readerships which may derive considerable benefit from them.
Boffo"s book has the considerable merit of not being daunting for an epigraphic
neophyte to use. If her volume draws such readers on to examination of further
inscriptions relating to their own field of Biblical studies, it will have succeeded well
in its goal. In one way, however, the provision of at least some plates of the texts, the
volume"s usefulness could have been expanded.
It is a considerable service
that the bibliographies to each text are so full and up-to-date; but users of the volume
will soon realise that numerous items in each bibliography deal with the general issues
raised by the text in question and not necessarily with the particular text at all.
Likewise, the indexes are extremely full; if they are not exhaustive that is forgivable.
The whole work has been proffered with great care, and the few typographical errors I
noted are mostly not likely to cause confusion. In no. 23 line 8 of the Quirinius
inscription, it may not easily be picked up that the final word idem should be
italicised, since in this Latin text it is the non-italicised lettering which has been
lost (see pl. 3 in Gabba).
So this well-presented
volume should be a useful and generally reliable vade mecum for those working in
Biblical Studies who are not familiar with inscriptions. Specialist epigraphers are also
likely to find here useful bibliography and up-to-date surveys of how some of these texts
have been understood by Biblical scholars. If this volume helps to keep each discipline
aware of the other, that will be a considerable benefit. Were there to be a murmur of
regret about its selection of items being too cautious in following so conscientiously its
predecessor book, at least it may be appreciated that this is a mark of pietas by
Boffo towards "il maestro".
1 Laura BOFFO, Iscrizioni
greche e latine per lo studio della Bibbia (Biblioteca di storia e storiografia dei
tempi biblici 9). Brescia, Paideia Editrice, 1994. 459 p. 15,5 x 23. Abbreviations of
Greek epigraphic corpora and related works used here follow those suggested in G.H.R.
HORSLEY J.A.L. LEE, "A preliminary checklist of abbreviations of Greek
epigraphic volumes", Epigraphica 56 (1994) 129-169.
2 Novum Testamentum Graecum
editionis receptae cum lectionibus variantibus . . . nec non commentariis pleniore ex
scriptoribus veteribus Hebraeis, Graecis, et Latinis historiam et vim verborum illustrante.
Vols. 1-2 (Amsterdam 1751-1752; reprint: Graz 1962).
3 G.A. DEISSMANN Bibelstudien (Marburg 1895); id., Neue Bibelstudien (Marburg
1897); id., Licht vom Osten (Tübingen 1908).
4 Cf. J. ROS, De studie van
het Bijbelgrieksch van Hugo Grotius tot Adolf Deissmann (Nijmegen 1940) 33-44,
especially 44; a contrasting perspective at New Docs 4.37-40, especially 39.
5 G.H.R. HORSLEY, "The
origin and scope of Moulton and Milligan"s Vocabulary of the Greek Testament,
and Deissmann"s planned New Testament lexicon. Some unpublished letters of G.A.
Deissmann to J.H. Moulton", BJRL 76 (1994) 187-216.
6 See New Docs 4.90-91.
7 Fasc. 1 (London 1914). The
complete work was published in one volume in 1930. The relevant portion of their preface
(page 5) is quoted in New Docs 4.90, and again in NT 34 (1992) 114.
8 On the early years of
papyrology a century ago, see J. KRAMER, "Papyrologie und Sprachwissenschaft: Die
Pionierzeit (1891-1906)", Acta of the 20th International Congress of Papyrology
held in Copenhagen in August 1992 (ed. A. BÜLOW-JACOBSEN) (Copenhagen 1994) 71-80.
9 One example from each end of
the present century must suffice: G. MILLIGAN, Selections from the Greek Papyri
(Cambridge 1910), and J.L. WHITE, Light from Ancient Letters (Philadelphia 1986).
10 Iscrizioni greche e
latine per lo studio della Bibbia (Sintesi dell" Oriente e della Bibbia 3; Milano
11 J.P. KANE "By no means "The earliest records of Christianity"
with an emended reading of the Talpioth inscription IESOUS IOU", PEQ 103
12 A. PLASSART FD 18.104.22.1686; cf. id., "L"inscription de Delphes
mentionnant le proconsul Gallion", REG 80 (1967) 372-378.
13 "La signification du
terme prwto/tokoj d"après une
inscription juive", Bib 11 (1930) 373-390.
14 R.A. KEARSLEY,
"Asiarchs, Archiereis, and the Archiereiai of Asia", GRBS
27 (1986) 183-92; id., "M. Ulpius Appuleius Eurykles of Aezani: Panhellene, Asiarch
and Archiereus of Asia", Antichthon 21 (1987) 49-56; id.,
"Asiarchs: titulature and function. A reappraisal", StudClas 26 (1988)
57-65; id., "A leading family of Cibyra and some Asiarchs of the first century",
AS 38 (1988) 43-51; id., "Some asiarchs of Ephesos", New Docs 4.46-55;
id., "Asiarchs, Archiereis and Archiereiai of Asia: new evidence from
Amorium in Phrygia", EA 16 (1990) 69-80; M. WÖRRLE, "Neue
Inschriftenfunde aus Aizanoi, I", Chiron 22 (1992) 337-76, at Appendix pp.
368-70; P. HERZ, "Asiarchen und Archiereiai. Zum Provinzialkult der Provinz
Asia", Tyche 7 (1992) 93-115; S. FRIESEN, Twice Neokoros. Ephesus, Asia and
the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family (Leiden 1993), index p. 233, and appendixes 1
and 2 (169-217). R.A. KEARSLEY "The Asiarchs of Cibyra again", Tyche 11
(1996) 129-155, offers a response to Herz (see especially 153, n. 182).
15 J. REYNOLDS R.
TANNENBAUM, Jews and Godfearers at Aphrodisias (Cambridge 1987).
16 Y. GRANDJEAN, Une
nouvelle arétalogie d"Isis à Maronée (Leiden 1975).
17 L. ROBERT, "De Delphes
à l"Oxus. Inscriptions grecques nouvelles de la Bactriane", CRAI (1968)
416-457 (= OMS 5.510-51).
18 G. PETZL, Die
Beichtinschriften Westkleinasiens (Epigraphica Anatolica 22; Bonn 1994); supplementary
texts in id., "Neue Inschriften aus Lydien (II)", EA 28 (1997) 69-79.
Note, too, H.-J. KLAUCK, "Die kleinasiatischen Beichtinschriften und das Neue
Testament", Geschichte, Tradition, Reflexion. (Festschrift für Martin Hengel
zum 70. Geburtstag; [eds. H. CANCIK et al.] Tübingen 1996) 63-87.
19 F. SOKOLOWSKI, Lois
sacrées de l'Asie mineure (LSAM) (Paris 1955). id., Lois sacrées des
cités grecques: supplément (LSCGSuppl.) (Paris 1962). id., Lois sacrées
des cités grecques (LSCG) (Paris 1969).
20 L. ROBERT,
"Malédictions funéraires grecques", CRAI (1978) 242-289, at 245-252 (= OMS
21 H. HEPDING, "Die
Arbeiten zu Pergamon, 1908-09, II. Die Inschriften", MDAI(A) 35 (1910)
454-457; cf. P.W. VAN DER HORST, "The altar of the "Unknown God" in Athens
(Acts 17, 23) and the cult of "Unknown Gods" in the Hellenistic and Roman
periods", ANRW II.18.2 (1989) 1426-1456, at 1432-1435.
22 A. BIRAN, "Notes and
News. Tel Dan, 1976", IEJ 26 (1976) 202-206, spec. 204-205.
23 L. MALUNOWICZ,
"Citations bibliques dans l"épigraphie grecque", Studia Evangelica VII.
Papers presented to the Fifth International Congress on Biblical Studies held at
Oxford, 1973, (ed. E.A. LIVINGSTONE) (TU 126; Leipzig 1982) 333-337; D. Feissel,
"La Bible dans les inscriptions grecques", Le monde grec ancien et la Bible
(éd. C. MONDÉSERT) (Paris 1984) 223-231.
24 A tabulation of all the
politarch testimonia (not just Macedonia) is included by G.H.R. HORSLEY, "The
politarchs in Macedonia, and beyond", Ancient Macedonia: an Australian Symposium
...1991 (ed. P. CONNOR) = MeditArch 7 (1994 ) (Sydney 1995) 99-126, in
which a Roman date for the institution of the office is adhered to. For a reiteration of
the argument that it preceded 167 BC see M.B. HATZOPOULOS, BE (1997) 540-541 no.
358; and note Hatzopoulos" important book, in which the same views are advanced: Macedonian
Institutions under the Kings. 2 vols. (Meletemata 22; Athens 1996) index, s.v.